"According to the doctrine of original sin, all humans are born bad and only God’s grace can bring salvation. James Boyce shows how these ideas have shaped the Western view of human nature, and how the belief that we are all innately sinful retains a firm grip on Western consciousness and culture - even in the writings of avowed atheists such as Marx and Freud. Born Bad traces a fascinating journey from Adam and Eve all the way to Adam Smith and Richard Dawkins in this sweeping story of a controversial idea and its remarkable influence. Contents Part One: Original Sin in Christendom 1. The Father of Original Sin 2. The Contest for the Western Soul 3. The Challenge of the Celts 4. Scholars and Sinners 5. The Forgiveness Industry 6. A Peasant’s World 7. All Shall Be Well 8. The Meaning of Marrying a Nun 9. John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion 10. Spreading the Word 11. The Puritan Foundation of Modern Life 12. Reclaiming Augustine Part Two: Original Sin in the Modern World 13. A Christian Enlightenment 14. The Perfect Evangelical 15. Celebrating Christian Choice 16. Adam Smith and Market Salvation 17. Imperfect Democracy 18. Original Sin in an Age of Progress 19. Freud and the Science of Self 20. Staying Positive 21. The Selfish Gene 22. Where to for Salvation? 23. Beyond Good or Bad Appendix: Where Did Original Sin Come From? 198"